Monday, April 2, 2007

Indonesian Slank

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copied & pasted:

Indonesian slang language is an informal variety of the Indonesian language.

Its native name, bahasa gaul, means 'language for socialization', as gaul means 'to be socialised'. This term was coined in the late 1990s.

The term bahasa prokem, which was coined in the early 1980s, means 'the language of gangsters'; prokem is a slang form of preman, derived from the Dutch word free-man, which means 'gangster'.

Indonesian slang language is mainly a spoken form, used in social milieus and in popular media, and to certain extent is used in publications such as teen magazines or pop culture magazines. One can deduce that Indonesian slang language is the primary language for oral communication spoken by everybody in daily life, except for formal speeches. It would be very unusual to communicate orally to people using the formal Indonesian.

The slang language is an ever-evolving language, as many words quickly become outdated and obsolete because of trends.

There is no formal classification of Indonesian slang language, except perhaps that it is a subclass of the Indonesian language.

Indonesian slang language is mainly spoken in urban areas. There are different variations of slang language in different cities, mainly characterised by derivatives of different local ethnic languages. For example, in Bandung, West Java, the slang language contains vocabulary from the Sundanese language (See "Region Specific Slang" below).

Official status
Indonesian slang language is not an official language of Indonesia, although it is widely used for oral communication in daily life.

Indonesian slang language is pronounced the same as formal Indonesian. Words borrowed from other language such as English or Dutch are transliterated in Indonesian orthography. For example, 'please' is written as plis, and 'married' as merit.

Indonesian slang language structure and grammar are not so much different from formal Indonesian language, albeit in many cases sentences are simplified or shortened when necessary. The differences between formal and colloquial Indonesian are mostly ones of vocabulary.

Indonesian slang language structure is derived mainly from formal Indonesian. Its vocabulary is extended by a combination of derivatives or borrowings from foreign languages such as Hokkien, English, and Dutch, or local ethnic languages such as Betawi, Sundanese, and Javanese. In many cases however, new words are invented on the spot, and their origin is obscure.

Some of the slang language vocabulary was transformed from formal Indonesian through several ways :

Nasalisation of active verb and adding -in at the end of the word, for example:
pikir (to think) into mikir
menanyakan (to ask) into nanyain
Adding -in at the end of the passive transitive verbs, for example:
diajari (to be taught) into diajarin
dipukuli (to be beaten) into dipukulin
Adding ke- at the beginning of passive intransitive verbs, instead of using ter-, for example:
tertangkap (to be caught) into ketangkep
terpeleset (to accidentally slip) into kepeleset
Eliminating one or few letters of the word, for example:
habis (depleted) into abis
tahu (know) into tau
Contraction of two or more words into one word, for example:
terima kasih (thank) into makasih
jaga image (to safeguard one's social image) into jaim
Replacing letter a into e in some words, for example:
benar (correct) into bener
pintar (smart) into pinter
Contracting diphthong into monosyllabic letter, for example:
kalau (if) into kalo
pakai (use) into pake
Some words are transliterations of English ones, for example:

Sorry into sori
Friend into pren
Swear into suer
Many words also emerged without following the above rules at all. Sometime the words have their own unique history or origin.

Cuek (to ignore or to take something easy) - popularized by Ruth Sahanaya in her 80s hit Astaga!; probably derived from the Malay word cuai, that means negligent.
Do'i (boyfriend / girlfriend) - originated from the word dia (him/her) transformed by inserting letter o in the middle and deleting the last letter a. It is later transformed into Doski.
Bokep (pornographic film) - originated from abbreviation BF which means Blue Film. BF is read Be-Ef, which in its pidgin form is read as Be-Ep. The word Bokep obtained by inserting ok in between Be-Ep.
Jayus - A joke that is meant to be or sound funny, but it is not. It roughly means corny in English.
Jijay - which means disgusting. Sometimes to express a condition of very disgusting, it is used in the phrase jijay bajay. The same rules are valid for najis and najis jaya (sometimes converted to 'ji-ji' when speaking to a child).

General words and phrases
This entry will list words and phrases from Indonesian slang, which are not region-specific (see below), and which are never considered as outdated.

Banget - (Formal: Sangat, Amat) Very
Bokap - (Formal: Bapak, Ayah) Father, developed from Boss Kakap literally means big boss
Bonyok - (Formal: Orang Tua) Parents. Originated from a combination of Bokap and Nyokap
Gua, Gue, Wa - (Formal: Aku, Saya) I. Originated from Hokkien Wa which means I
Garing - A joke that is not funny. Literally means dry or crispy
Lu, Lo, Elu, Elo - (Formal: Engkau, Kau, Kamu) You. Originated from Hokkien Li which means You
Nggak, Gak - (Formal: Tidak) No
Nyokap - (Formal: Ibu, Bunda) Mother, developed from Nyonya Kakap literally means big mistress
Akika or Eike - (Formal: Aku) I; Kawanua - (Formal: Kamu, Kau) You and *Diese - (formal: Dia) He/She. Usually these term are used by the transvestites. Eike was originated from Dutch Ik which means I.


Sexual slang
Bencong, Banci, Binan, Bences - Transvestite, Cross Dresser, feminine male, sometimes says to a coward person
Wadam (Wanita Adam), Waria (Wanita Pria) - shemale with dominant masculine look. Wanita = female, Adam = male, Pria = male.
Hombreng, Homo, Homodimuko (originally means 'gay face'), Homsex - Gay
Biji - Testicles
Kontol, To'ol, Batang, Burung (=bird), Peli, Peler, Kacuk, Zakar - Penis
Titit - childish term of "kontol"
Jembut, Gambris - Pubic hair
Lines, Les Biola (originally means 'violin course'), Lesbong, Lesbi - Lesbian
Memek, Puki, Pepek - Vagina
Ngentot, Ngewe, Ngehe, To'i, Kenthu, Ngencuk, Martole - fornication, Fuck (also a swear word)
Coli, Cokil - Masturbation. Originated from a combination of ngocok and peli. Literally means 'shaking the penis'
Tete, Toket, - Breast
Kulup - uncircumcized male person, lit. means "preputium"
Biji Peler - Testicles
Ngocok - masturbation (for men), literally means "shaking"
Sepong - oral sex, a woman do fellatio to a man, literally means 'sucking'
Karaoke - same as "sepong", refers to the similarity of a woman singing with a microphone
Njilat - oral sex, a man do cunnilingus, literally means 'licking'
Itil, Kelentit - clitoris
Palkon (kepala kontol) - dickhead, or the top (headpart) of the penis.
Onani, Masturbasi, Ngloco - masturbation (self service)
Puting, Pentil - breast nipple, lit. means 'nipple' in any form.
Ngaceng - penis erection, lit. means 'pointing up'
Ngecrit, Ngecrut, Ngecret, Ngecrot, Muncrat - male cum shot, lit. means 'squirting'
Pantat - very rude term of 'the bottom part', buttock.
Memantat - doing anal sex
Oom Senang - Gigolo, lit. means "happy uncle"
Tante Girang - a woman who likes to having sex with younger man, lit. means "happy auntie"
ABG (Anak Baru Gede) - teenagers, usually says to a person between 12 and less than 17 years old

Swear words
Anjing, Jing, Asu, Kirik - Bitch. Literally means dog, and it is often used as an interjection.
Kampret - Jerk, literally means bats.
Ngentot, ngewe - Fuck
Cibai - Vagina
Tai - Shit, lit. means 'feces'
Lonte, Perek, Pelacur, Jablay, Cabo - Prostitutes
Bangsat - means Damn in a harsh way, literally means bed bugs
Bego, Goblok, Tolol - stupid, usually says to a person who perform an idiotic way
Brengsek - you suck! or 'scumb you are!'
Sialan - damn it
Monyet Luh, Bedes Kon - you're a monkey.
Isep kontol gua - suck my dick
Cukimai, pukimak, bujang inam - motherfucker
Babi, Genjik - pig
Gila, Sinting, Edan, Gemblung - nuts, insane, lit. means 'an unhealthy mental person'
Setan - damn it, lit. means "devil"

Before 1980s
List of words and phrases commonly used in the 1980s:

Kumpul Kebo - Living together but not married, as in domestic partners
Bau Tanah - Old, Dying, Close to the end of use

1980s is the era of bahasa prokem. In this era, slang language vocabulary was formed by inserting '-ok-' after the first consonant of a word, and deleting the last syllable, creating a totally new word.

For example, the word Bapak is broken into B-ok-apak and the last -ak is deleted, and the resulting word is Bokap which used as a slang for Father, even until now.

The word Sekolah (School) is transformed into Skokul, but this word is slowly become outdated and by 1990s the word is not used anymore. (currently transformed into simply: skul)

Notable words like memble, kece, the sentence attribute Nih ye, andh the exclamation Alamakjan! emerged in the same decade.

List of words and phrases commonly used in the 1980s:

Do'i / Doski - Girlfriend / Boyfriend
Kece - Cute
Kuper - Acronym of Kurang Pergaulan which literally means not well socialised
Memble - Ugly, Sombre, Sad, Disappointed
Ngokar - To smoke
Ngegele - To smoke pot
Ogut - Me, I or Mine
Spokat - Shoes
Rokum - House or Home
Bo'il - Automobiles
Rese or Resek (both pronounced the same way) - Annoying, Intrusive
Gara - say to No or Not
Saik - Acronym of Asik

List of words and phrases commonly used in the 1990s:

Bete - Bad mood, upset (from English BT = Bad Temper; the abbreviation is later 'translated' into Indonesian as Bosen Total = Totally Bored)
Bo! - Exclamation word of no meaning
Dugem - Nightlife, an acronym of Dunia Gemerlap literally means Flashy World
Gile! - Exclamation word equals to crazy
Lagi - Exclamation word that is used at the end of a sentence as emphasis
Ngebo'at - To use drugs
Tajir - Rich
Jomblo - Single, no boy friend/ girlfriend.

A genre of slang language in the 2000 originated from the Indonesian gay community, and popularized by Debby Sahertian in her Kamus Bahasa Gaul or 'Slang Language Dictionary'. The method of transforming a word is to use a different word which has a similar sound. For example, the word mau (want), is replaced by the word mawar which originally means rose. Hence the sentence became quite complicated to understand: Akika tinta mawar Macarena originated from Aku tidak mau makan which means 'I do not want to eat'.

List of words and phrases commonly used in the 2000s
Akika - I, me, myself
Borju - Rich, Pampered, Spoiled, or Show Off, a shorter form of the word Borjuis which came from the French word Bourgeois
Cupu - (Culun punya) Literally means lame
Dugem - (Dunia gemerlap) something or someone which is identical to nightlife activities or hedonism (ie. night clubs, rave parties)
Ember - (Emang Bener) Exclamation word to confirm something, means It is true or Indeed
Gak asik - Literally means uncool or not fun
Gak penting - Literally means not important or trivial
Geje - (GJ: Gak Jelas) Literally means not obvious
Gitu loh! - Exclamation word that is used at the end of a sentence as emphasis, or means, "That's it!" (eg. "So what, gitu loh!")
Jayus - A joke that is meant to be or sound funny, but it is not. It roughly means corny in English.
Kacian deh lo! - Pity you!
Pembokat - Literally means maid or servant
Plis dong ah! or Plis deh! - Oh, Please! or Gimme a break!
Secara - Literally means a la, but is used to substitute karena which means because
Sotoy, Sotz - Pretend to know something he/she doesn't really know.
Sumpe lo? - Are you sure?
Sutra - Done

Bali slang
Bali language have 4 placement: ASI, AMI, ASO and BK.
Bali have special letter, 18 character. Java letter have 20 character, Bali letter only have 18 character. It lost 2 letters.

Bandung slang
Bandung, is the city in west java with predominantly Sundanese culture. Sundanese language has three levels: high (polite), normal, and low (impolite). Bandung slang mostly uses derivative of Low Sundanese words such as Aing and Maneh.

One distinct characteristic in Bandung slang grammar is generous insertion of the word anjing in a sentence. The word means 'dog', but its usage in Bandung slang is merely for emphasis and not as swearword.

For example: Nasi goreng Jalan Madura ngeunah pisan, anjing! which means 'Fried rice in Madura Street is really delicious, gosh!'

Aing - I
Anjing - Bitch, generously used by inserting it in sentences not as swearwords but only as emphasis
Maneh - You
Goreng - Ugly
Heunceut - Female genital
Keuheud - Male genital
Ngeunah - Nice
Ngewe, Ijut - To fuck
Siah - You
Kanjut - Scrotum
Kolomoh - oral sex (fellatio)
Ngilad - oral sex (cunnilingus)
Mantog siah - get lost

Central Java slang
These slangs are shared across central Java (Semarang, Yogyakarta, Solo)

Ndak -- No, not. Javanese rather use this word to say tidak in Indonesian
Isa -- used by the javanese to indonesianize isa (pronounced as /is@/) which means bisa(=can, be able to) in Indonesian
Mudheng -- Understand
Bojo - Boy friend/ girl friend. Originally in standard Javanese means spouse
Mbadok, Madang, Njeglag -- Eat, Having breakfast, lunch or dinner
Ora nggenah, Ora nggadeg - do not seems good / does not make sense
Piye, jal?, - Semarang term, means How about it?
Njur piye? - Kedu term, means How about next?
Yo mesti! - Semarang term, means Exactly, certainly
Semeh, sebeh - Semarang slang for Mother (Javanese= ibu) and Father (Javanese= bapak)
Iyo,no! - Solo term, means Of course
Yo, Karepmu - Same meaning with it's up to you or whatever
Isin -- Shy
Uelek tenan - very ugly
Gembelengan - moving around without any certain direction
Njuk ngopo?, - so what?
Pekok - Moron, idiot
Koplak - Idiot, but in fun meaning

Jakarta slang
Akamsi -- stands for anak kampung sini (kids on the block)
Apong -- variation of sepong (to do oral sex to male)
Bang -- Call for male elder people
Bego -- Stupid
Berapa duit? or Berapaan? -- How much money?
Bokis -- Cheapskate in English.
Cokin/Cinko/Cinin -- Chinese Indonesian (derogatory term)
Doang -- Only
Dodol -- Stupid
Emang -- So / it is so. (emangnya kenapa?/emang gue pikirin = "So what?"; the latter literally means "Like I care")
Gue or Gua or Gw -- I, me, myself
Jablay -- Whore
Jebe -- person with thick ugly lips
Jotos -- Punch
Kacau -- Mess (the usage is a little different from formal language)
Kenceng -- Fast (speed), fastened
Kipak -- cripple
Lempeng -- Straight (direction)
Lu or Lo or Elu or Elo -- You
Sip -- Okay
Siyok -- shocked, as in "Aduh siyok!"
Tiko -- Indonesian native (derogatory term)
Yoy -- Same as Yo'i or Yo'a. It almost have no meaning, but you can use it as an ok answer.
Gokil -- Crazy or Insane (can be implied both in a positive or negative way)
'Monyong -- big and hard lips

Malang slang
Malangese slang typically done by swapping syllables.

Kera -- Arek (= "men / boys")
Ngalam -- Malang (the city)
Arodam --Madura (Madurese)
Raijo -- derived from ojir (money)
Ngoceb -- derived from bencong (transvestite)
Nolab -- derived from balon (it means 'prostitute')
Kunam -- derived from manuk (bird or 'penis')

Manado slang
Manado slang, is widely used throughout the North Sulawesi province. It is used casually in everyday life and sometimes used in formal occasions. Many words are similar to the Indonesian language. See: Manado Malay.

Some of the simple words for visitors are:
oto; car
doi; money
kous; t-shirt
calana; pants
koi; bed
slop; sandals, flip flops
spatu/capatu; shoes
maitua ; girlfriend, a girl friend
paitua ; boyfriend, a guy friend

Some words and phrases that are more temporary mostly used by young people:
ba jao jo; go away!, get away!
ba ilang jo; get lost!
so gila stou; are you nuts!?
ajus ; mother (used among peers, not to parents)
sebe ; father
Tambio ; Hustler, Prostitute or Call Girl
oi to po?; right dude?
Sepang ; Setan Panggilan (Evil)
Ichat ; Iblis Catok (Devil Boy)
Alot ; Anak Lonte (Son/daughter of Hustler/Bitch)
Budo ; Budak Dosa (Slave Of Sin)

Some cuss words are:
pemar, pemai, cuki, cuki mai, pendo; there are no specific meanings to these words, they're just straight up cuss words
lonte; slut, hoe, whore
keode; damn!

Medan slang
Selow - Came from the word 'slow', means relax, cooling down, or calm down
Sikit - Came from the word Sedikit, means a litle.
Sokam - A slang word for Dji Sam Soe cigarette
Bodat - Primate
Bondon - Whore
Tuncit - To fuck
Totong - Penis

Jambi & Palembang slang
Mostly Jambi and Palembang slang language just change the letter at the end of the word with letter 'o' (but not all of the word can changed with o, mostly word which ended with 'a' letter can changed with 'o'.

Kau - You
Dak - No/Incapibilities , e.g : Dak Jaleh (Jaleh means can) which means say 'Can not' to other people but in rude way
Cak - How
Pler - Came from word 'Peler' means 'Penis'
Kancitan, Kacukan, Kentot, Ngentot - To Fuck
Pulak - Just additional word normally added at the end of sentences , e.g "Cak Mano Pulak" mean 'how it can be'

Pontianak slang
Pontianak slang is influenced by Malay, Teochew and Dayaknese. It is spoken in Malay dialect.

oto; literally means 'auto' which is 'car'
bujur; (pronounced bujo) means 'straight' (as in direction)
kam sia; derived from Teochew which means 'thank you'
plaza; means the verb slap
tadak; (Indonesian: tidak) which means 'no'
lempok; (Indonesian: dodol) which means 'cakes from cooked fruit'
kalak; (Indonesian: nanti) which means 'later'

Surabaya slang
Some of the well known Surabayan slangs:

Dancuk, dancik, cuk, dancrit, jancuk -- fuck
Ndak -- No
Kenceng -- Fast (but not fasten, like Jakarta slang)
Banter -- Fast (speed)
Montor -- Car
Lontong -- Stupid, useless (lontong = name of traditional food made of rice)
Congok -- Stupid
Gaplek -- Very annoying (gaplek = cassava)
Bokong -- Buttocks
Bujuk -- Lie (compare to the formal meaning: to persuade)
Budheg -- Deaf
Korak -- Thugs
Dableg -- Keep coming for more
Dolen -- To play
Reken, ngreken -- Attention, pay attention
Lonthe -- Prostitutes
Ngelonthe -- To sell ourselves
Matamu -- means Watch Your EYE! Usually used to express anger or unhappy feeling or situation
Asu -- Anjing
Another characteristics of Surabayan slang is to add "u" before a vowel and stressed the word in a unique way to indicate superlative forms:

Buanyak -- Very much (banyak = much)
Buanjir -- Very bad flood (banjir = flood)
Bueda -- Very different (beda = different)
Buanget -- Very something (e.g. buanyak buanget is much much more than just banyak)
In the 1990s, there are a bunch of slangs that combines "lo" and the first syllable of a word, such as

Leken -- Motorcycle (originally from 'kendaraan' = 'vehicle')
Lomon -- Car (originally from 'montor')
Logob -- Stupid (from 'goblok')
Lokcong -- Stupid (from 'congok')
Lustup -- Stupid (from 'stupid')

Yogyakarta slang
Yogyakarta slang is also known as Basa Walikan, literally means 'Reverse Language'. It is a transformation from Javanese, in which Javanese traditional character sequences are being switched with one another, using the formula below:

ha na ca ra ka → pa dha ja ya nya
da ta sa wa la → ma ga ba tha nga
pa dha ja ya nya → ha na ca ra ka
ma ga ba tha nga → da ta sa wa la
Using the above manner, the exclamation word Matamu! (which means: 'Your Eyes!') is transformed into Dagadu!.

Bahasa Prokem (Thug Slang)
Bahasa prokem or thug slang was used by some thug long time ago. In the middle of 80s, it popularized again by some teenagers and widely spoken until the end of 80s. Mostly of Bahasa prokem is removing none, one, two or three letters at the end of the word, and inserting "ok" at the middle of the word.

prokem = preman (removing "an" and inserting "ok", means "thug")
bokap = bapak (father)
berokap = berapa? (how much)
bokep = be ep (bf / blue film)
rokum = rumah (home)
tokai = tai (faeces / shit)
sepokat= sepatu (shoes)
celokan= celana (pants)
boker = berak (urinating)
plokis = polisi (a policeman)
bokin = bini (wife, or sometimes it means girlfriend)
cokin = cina (very rude, means "chinese")


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